Table of Contents
Inclusive Design Patterns explains how we can craft accessible interfaces without extra effort— and what front-end design patterns we can use to create inclusive experiences.
Physical and eBooks written to discuss different accessibility topics.
Get sure footing on the path to designing with accessibility.
Building an elegant, functional website requires more than just knowing how to code. In Adaptive Web Design, Second Edition, you’ll learn how to use progressive enhancement to build websites that won’t break, work anywhere, are accessible by anyone—on any device, and are designed to work well into the future.
Free ebook: A Practical Guide to Accessible Software Development at Scale, by Dylan Barrell.
Web accessibility is quite a large topic — far too large to fit into a small book. So, what will this book cover? Though we shall encounter visual design challenges, deal with performance issues, and adopt progressive enhancement — all of which are accessibility concerns — the underlying theme of this book is about making the interactivity of web applications include keyboard and screen reader users.
In Automating Inequality, Virginia Eubanks systematically investigates the impacts of data mining, policy algorithms, and predictive risk models on poor and working-class people in America.
Elizabeth DePoy, Stephen Gilson
Given their potential to divide humans into categories and label their worth and value, design and branding can wield immense but currently unharnessed powers of social change. Groups designed as devalued can be undesigned, redesigned and rebranded to seamlessly and equivalently participate in community, work and civic life.
Building Access investigates twentieth-century strategies for designing the world with disability in mind.
Make sure accessibility and aesthetics go hand-in-hand with every design.
A bold and contemporary discourse of the intersection of disability studies and queer studies.
Explore how to create culturally relevant and responsible experiences that reach a truly global audience.
David Dylan Thomas
In Design for Cognitive Bias, David Dylan Thomas lays bare the irrational forces that shape our everyday decisions and, inevitably, inform the experiences we craft. Once we grasp the logic powering these forces, we stand a fighting chance of confronting them, tempering them, and even harnessing them for good.
How design for disabled people and mainstream design could inspire, provoke, and radically change each other.
Eric Meyer, Sara Wachter-Boettcher
You can’t know every user, but you can develop inclusive practices to create experiences that support a wider range of people, more of the time.
Interaction design that entails a qualitative shift from a symbolic, language-oriented stance to an experiential stance that encompasses the entire design and use cycle.
Todd Parker, Scott Jehl, Maggie Costello Wachs, and Patty Toland
Progressive enhancement is an approach to web development that aims to deliver the best possible experience to the widest possible audience, and simplifies coding and testing as well. Whether users are viewing your sites on an iPhone, the latest and greatest high-end system, or even hearing them on a screen-reader, their experience should be easy to understand and use, and as fully-featured and functional as possible.
Designing with Web Standards remains your essential guide to creating sites that load faster, reach more users, and cost less to design and maintain.
Activist Alice Wong brings together this urgent, galvanizing collection of contemporary essays by disabled people.
Stefanie K. Johnson
How do we find that happy medium where workers can demonstrate their individuality while also feeling they belong?
What is inclusive design? It is simple. It means that your product has been created with the intention of being accessible to as many different users as possible.
In this book, award-winning international accessibility thought-leader Jonathan Hassell shows you how to transform your organisation to consistently and cost-efficiently create websites, mobile apps and other digital products that are usable for all of your customers.
The Inclusion Dividend provides a framework to tap the bottom line impact that results from an inclusive culture.
Mason Donovan, Mark Kaplan
The Inclusion Dividend provides a framework to tap the bottom line impact that results from an inclusive culture.
Effective dialogue across different dimensions of diversity, such as race, gender, age, religion, or sexual orientation, fosters a sense of belonging and inclusion, which in turn leads to greater productivity, performance, and innovation.
Inclusive Design Handbook gets to the bottom of it all: accessibility myths and rules of thumbs, WAI-ARIA roles, content accessibility guidelines, landmark roles, keyboard and touch accessibility, accessible markup and interaction patterns, accessible forms and widgets, multimedia accessibility and inclusive prototyping.
Websites and apps are places where critical parts of our lives happen. We shop, bank, learn, gossip, and select our leaders there. But many of these places weren’t intended to support these activities. Instead, they’re designed to capture your attention and sell it to the highest bidder.
Bess Williamson, Elizabeth Guffey
Making Disability Modern: Design Histories brings together leading scholars from a range of disciplinary and national perspectives to examine how designed objects and spaces contributes to the meanings of ability and disability from the late 18th century to the present day, and in homes, offices, and schools to realms of national and international politics.
How inclusive methods can build elegant design solutions that work for all.
Sarah F. Rose
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Americans with all sorts of disabilities came to be labeled as “unproductive citizens.” Before that, disabled people had contributed as they were able in homes, on farms, and in the wage labor market, reflecting the fact that Americans had long viewed productivity as a spectrum that varied by age, gender, and ability.
This book will guide you through a broad range of access needs, the barriers users often face, and provide practical advice on how your sites can help rather than hinder. Going beyond advice tailored solely for developers, this book offers potential improvements for designers, developers, user experience professionals, QA and testers, so that everyone involved in building a website can benefit.
Joshue O Connor
Pro HTML5 Accessibility helps designers come to grips with building exciting, accessible and usable web sites and applications with HTML5. The book covers how to use HTML5 in order to serve the needs of people with disabilities and older persons using assistive technology (AT).
Eswaran Subrahmanian, Yoram Reich, Sruthi Krishnan
A call to reclaim and rethink the field of designing as a liberal art where diverse voices come together to shape the material world.
Jason C. Taylor
Your Roadmap to Digital Inclusion is made up of four instructive chapters, focused on the resource considerations for each stage of a typical digital accessibility program and how to integrate the disability community across your program.
Jim Thatcher and Mark Urban
The power of the Web lies in the fact that anyone and everyone can access it, and this should also extend to users with disabilities. Accessibility is about making websites accessible to those with aural, visual, or physical disabilities, or rather, constructing websites that don't exclude these people from accessing the content or services provided.
Sarah Horton and Whitney Quesenbery
If you are in charge of the user experience, development, or strategy for a web site, A Web for Everyone will help you make your site accessible without sacrificing design or innovation. Rooted in universal design principles, this book provides solutions: practical advice and examples of how to create sites that everyone can use.
A fascinating and provocative new way of looking at the things we use and the spaces we inhabit, and a call to imagine a better-designed world for us all.
Get the latest accessibility-related news delivered to your inbox.
The A11Y Project
A summary of the links The A11Y Project shares on Twitter throughout the week. Shared weekly on Fridays.
David A. Kennedy
A weekly dose of web accessibility to help you bring it into your everyday work. Delivered to your inbox each Monday.
Get notified when we write new stuff
Stay up to date on learning and development, training opportunities, and accessibility news.
Join readers from Microsoft, QZ, Amazon, and more receiving our weekly newsletter with highly curated content and write-ups, plus Stark updates here & there.
The goal is to spread news, articles and tips regarding web accessibility. This will be more than a bunch of links in an email, there will be opinions.
Laura L. Carlson
The Web Design Update is a plain text email digest dedicated to disseminating news and information about web design and development with emphasis on elements of user experience, accessibility, web standards and more.
It's like those “Word of the Day” email services, but for the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) instead. Each day it sends out a short summary of a different success criterion.
The WebAIM newsletter is for people that are interested in receiving monthly news and updates on web accessibility issues. The newsletter will include featured articles, monthly tips, resources, and questions from WebAIM's discussion forum.
Listen to, or read the transcripts of people talking all about accessibility.
Be My Eyes
The accessibility podcast.
The Frontside Podcast
Marcy Sutton is going to be talking with us a little bit about accessibility, both in the large and the small.
Conversations around web accessibility.
Front End Happy Hour
In this episode, we have a special guest joining us to talk about digital accessibility, Jennison Asuncion who is a leader in the accessibility community and has a lot of information to help us improve our websites and applications be more accessible for all users.
Eat Sleep Code
On this episode of Eat Sleep Code, guest Elle Waters explains why accessibility is important in software development and what a developer’s responsibilities are when creating a product.
We're chatting with Heydon Pickering about accessibility, using pre-built solutions past their best before date, everyone's varying degrees of proficiency, and whether accessibility is becoming second nature to more people.
The Big Web Show
Why do companies de-prioritize accessibility? Making a digital map accessible to the blind. Pros and cons of the straw test. Why simulating a disability is not the same as working with disabled people.
Steven Aquino and Timothy Buck
Accessible is a fortnightly—episodes are released twice per month—podcast about accessibility in tech. Topics covered on the show are mostly Apple-centric but will span the tech industry at large where appropriate.
This week, we talk accessibility pitfalls with Aaron Canon.
Stephanie Slattery explains the 5 categories of disabilities, shows us how to implement suggestions from the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, and shares why she’s so passionate about accessibility.
This week on the show, we talk to Laura Kalbag about her new book, Accessibility for Everyone. We discuss how digital products have an increasing mandate to be broadly usable by everyone in society, and what we can do to achieve better accessibility in our designs.
Thisten is an audio-to-text platform, where transcripts are created and aggregated from podcasts for people to search, reference and discover.
Recorded conference talks.
The goal of A11ycasts is to teach developers how accessibility works all the way down at the platform level, while also demonstrating real world accessibility problems and solutions to fix them.
YouTube livestreams about accessibility.
LDS Church (2007)
Google I/O (2016)
Monthly online talks about accessibility.
Google I/O (2013)
Hear from people who are working to make the world an easier place for those with disabilities.
Paris Web (2013)
Dr. Michele A. Williams
This brief introductory video geared towards technology professionals provides a baseline understanding of the topic of Web and digital accessibility: designing, coding, and testing with users with disabilities in mind, including the diverse assistive technology and tools they may be using to engage with their computing devices.
Web Rebels (2017)
Chrome Dev Summit (2013)
Progressive Web App Summit (2016)
Generate Conference (2013)
Small “micro apps” that live in your browser that you can activate to manipulate the current page or view.
A bookmarklet to make it easier to test WCAG’s Target Size and proposed Pointer Target Spacing requirements.
A bookmarklet that simulates various types user experiences.
The United States Social Security Administration
The Accessible Name and Description Inspector accessibility testing tool.
Check that your HTML code conforms to your coding standard.
Check how accessible your Twitter media posts are.
The W3C Nu Markup Validator checks the markup validity of Web documents, but instead uses the backend from the Validator.nu engine.
Quick and dirty testing of WCAG 2.1 Success Criterion 1.4.12 Text Spacing.
An accessibility visualization toolkit.
Visual ARIA allows engineers, testers, educators, and students to physically observe ARIA usage within web technologies.
Specialized tools that augment your browser to augment and enhance your experience.
Solve accessibility issues before they reach your customers.
ARC Toolkit is a professional-level accessibility testing tool that gives you the power to quickly and efficiently evaluate screens for accessibility and uncover issues related to the WCAG 2.1 Level A and AA guidelines.
The world's leading digital accessibility toolkit - download as a browser extenion or on NPM. Chosen by Microsoft, Google, development and testing teams everywhere.
Automatically catch tons of accessibility bugs with axe. Catch even more with axe beta.
The ChromeVox (Classic) screen reader is an extension to Chrome that brings the speed, versatility, and security of Chrome to visually impaired users.
NC State IT Accessibility
Allows you to analyze text color contrast problems on a webpage according to the WCAG 2 text color contrast requirements.
The extension generates a documentmap or index of any web document structured with headings (you can access directly to the content by clicking on any of its items), and now, it shows the HTML 5 outline.
Matthew Tylee Atkinson
Allows you to navigate a web page via WAI-ARIA landmarks, using the keyboard or a pop-up menu.
NoCoffee can be helpful for understanding the problems faced by people with slight to extreme vision problems.
WAVE is a web accessibility evaluation tool developed by WebAIM. It provides visual feedback about the accessibility of your web content by injecting icons and indicators into your page.
These tools help you create, test for, and maintain accessible color contrast ratios.
A CLI utility to calculate/verify accessible magic numbers for a color palette.
Pick any color to generate an accessible palette.
An Elm-based prototype to help designers build accessible color palettes.
Mahzarin R. Banaji, Anthony G. Greenwald
In Blindspot, Mahzarin Banaji and Anthony Greenwald explore hidden biases that we all carry from a lifetime of experiences with Blindspot approved.inddsocial groups – age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, social class, sexuality, disability status, or nationality.
Color palette combination contrast tester
Donielle Berg and Adrian Rapp
Empowering designers with beautiful and accessible color palettes based on WCAG Guidelines of text and background contrast ratios.
Colors.css - A nicer color palette for the web.
Use the Colorblind Colorlab to select safe colors earlier in the design process.
Easily calculate color contrast ratios. Passing WCAG was never this easy!
Hex Naw is a tool that helps designers and developers test entire color systems for contrast and accessibility. Plug in your palette or color system and let Hex Naw do the rest.
Enter your colors in HEX format or click on the icon to use the color picker. Contrast ratio value will be updated automatically as you change color values.
Super High Fives
An open-source colour picker app for macOS.
Find good constrast for web accessibility between two colors.
Tom van Beveren and Kim van den Brink
Making the world a better place for the colorblind.
A tool that brings attention and understanding to how color contrast can affect different people with visual impairments.
Tools and resources for helping to develop with an accessible mindset.
Run a free website performance test and get actionable tips on how to optimize it.
Find accessibility stats by github repository.
AccessLint is a GitHub App that finds accessibility issues in your pull requests.
The DAISY Consortium
Ace, the Accessibility Checker for EPUB, is a tool developed by the DAISY Consortium to assist with the evaluation of accessibility features of EPUB publications.
Paul J. Adam
a11yTools is a collection of HTML Web Accessibility Testing Tools in one location in an Extension for Safari used for quick and easy Accessibility testing.
Paul J. Adam
a11yTools is a collection of HTML Web Accessibility Testing Tools in one location on your iPhone and iPad for quick and easy Accessibility testing.
AMP’s powerful testing engine and work flow, accessible development best practices and extensive training course library allow organizations to quickly and efficiently incorporate accessibility compliance into existing development processes.
Automated testing that looks for machine-detectable accessibility defects within digital content.
Accessibility engine for automated Web UI testing.
Web Accessibility checker which evaluate some defined WCAG rules instantly during coding or on command.
Snippets that include all WAI-ARIA attributes and descriptions, for ease of use in building more accessible web content.
Be Inclusive is a web app that helps you define, track, and share web accessibility audits.
Bootstrap Accessibility Plugin is an extension for the Bootstrap 3 web development framework that makes many of the components of this library accessible for keyboard and screen reader users.
Pa11y is your automated accessibility testing pal.
Sa11y is an accessibility quality assurance tool that visually highlights common accessibility and usability issues. Geared towards content authors, Sa11y indicates errors or warnings at the source with a simple tooltip on how to fix.
WAI-ARIA Roles, States and Properties auto-completion for Sublime Text.
Information about screen reading assistive technology.
Android Accessibility Suite is a collection of accessibility services that help you use your Android device eyes-free or with a switch device.
Instantly test how accessible your experience is with the real assistive technologies your disabled users rely on — screen readers, magnifiers, and more — from any computer.
JAWS is the world's most popular screen reader, developed for computer users whose vision loss prevents them from seeing screen content or navigating with a mouse.
NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) is a free, open-source, portable screen reader for Microsoft Windows.
The GNOME Project
Orca is a free and open-source, flexible, extensible screen reader from the GNOME project for individuals who are blind or visually impaired.
VoiceOver is a gesture-based screen reader that lets you enjoy using iPhone even if you don’t see the screen.
VoiceOver gives you auditory descriptions of each onscreen element and provides helpful hints along the way.
Vision simulators can be used to help you get an idea of how a low vision situation may appear.
Color Oracle takes the guesswork out of designing for color blindness by showing you in real time what people with common color vision impairments will see.
Nothing Magical, Inc.
A macOS app for quick access to WCAG color contrast ratios
The Colour Contrast Analyser (CCA) helps you determine the legibility of text and the contrast of visual elements, such as graphical controls and visual indicators.
Sim Daltonism lets you visualize colors as they are perceived with various types of color blindness.
Other accessibility-focused websites to read and learn from.
Where programmers share ideas and help each other grow.
24 days of digital accessibility gifts during the season of giving and sharing.
Articles and news on web standards, accessibility, and usability.
Documenting everything through the journey of learning web accessibility.
Simple tips on making web content more accessible to all.
Promoting a culture of inclusion through the research and application of web accessibility and standards.
Showcasing accessible user interfaces and tools.
Find out what’s happening in the world of accessible design, Simply Accessible’s team updates, and better practices for an accessible web.
Karl Groves' web accessibility blog
A blog trying to be a pattern library. All about designing inclusive web interfaces, piece by piece.
Stay up to date on all things accessibility
A blog by Robyn Hunt
A blog about accessibility written by the TPGi's employees.
A blog about accessibility written by WebAIM's employees.
Blog and podcast on web accessibility.
Other internet groups where you can find accessibility help and support.
Questions and Answers by Accessify: Browse through our database of popular questions to find the best answers ever posted by other people.
Information on the web-a11y Slack group.
Content tagged with 'accessibility'.
Content tagged with 'accessibility'.
Content tagged with 'accessibility'.
Find Meetups so you can do more of what matters to you.
With this article, our goal is to introduce fellow engineers, regardless of level, to web accessibility and share our practical knowledge and best practices.
The WebAIM web accessibility mailing list is for anyone interested in discussing web accessibility issues. Individuals from all organizations and specialties are encouraged to join.
Classes you can take to learn all about accessible digital design and development.
Courses, webinars, educational videos, and more, offered in web accessibility.
Technology can empower people to achieve more, help strengthen education opportunities, and make the workplace more inviting and inclusive for people with disabilities.
edX and the W3C
Get a strong foundation in digital accessibility to make your websites and apps work well for people with disabilities, meet international standards, and provide a better user experience for everyone.
This course will introduce you to accessibility through hands-on, technical examples that are way more effective than reading 10-year-old static web content.
A series of five 5-minute tutorial videos hosted by Aquent Gymnasium that deal with introductory accessibility topics.
In Technically Wrong, Sara Wachter-Boettcher demystifies the tech industry, leaving those of us on the other side of the screen better prepared to make informed choices about the services we use—and to demand more from the companies behind them.
The A11Y Collective is the e-learning platform for anyone who wants to learn more about web accessibility. The courses focus mostly on knowledge and skills that are valuable for web designers, developers, webmasters, product owners and web editors.
In this course you’ll get hands-on experience making web applications accessible.
Design and user experience
Information for how to create accessible digital designs.
Accessibility enables people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, interact with, and contribute to the web. Imagine a world where developers know everything there is to know about accessibility. You design it and they build it… perfectly. In this world, only the design itself can cause people with disabilities to have trouble using a product.
We use this library at Indeed to help designers document accessibility considerations to share with developers when handing off designs.
To be accessible, UI components need to work across multiple devices with varying screen-sizes and different kinds of input. Moreover, components should be usable by the broadest group of users, including those with disabilities.
The Accessible Usability Scale (AUS) is a free tool to measure the usability of a digital product for assistive technology users. Inspired by the System Usability Scale (SUS), the Accessible Usability Scale consists of ten questions administered at the end of a user experience to calculate a score.
As a UX designer, it is important to build empathy and celebrate accessibility requirements as a set of design constraints to build a better product.
Seven easy-to-implement guidelines to design a more accessible web.
Ethical Design Guide is made to share resources on how to create ethical products that don't cause harm.
Zoltán Gócza and Zoltán Kollin
UX Myths collects the most frequent user experience misconceptions and explains why they don't hold true.
Here's a checklist I'm working on to help ensure the products I design comply with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG).
Screen reader help
Help about screen reading assistive technology.
When you test your website with a screen reader there are a few basic commands you should know.
Yakim van Zuijlen
This article explains why you should be testing your content with a screen reader. It also gives a visual guide on how to use VoiceOver on macOS
Automated accessibility tests are a great resource to have, but they can’t automatically make your site accessible. Use them as one step of a larger testing process.
Keyboard testing is one of the most efficient, impactful, and easy tasks that any team member can do to find accessibility issues.
Answers to common questions.
Good typography is an important part of an accessible digital experience.
Creating and designing accessible content means more than just choosing accessible typography. Even with “perfect” font families in place on your website, people with low vision, cognitive, language, and learning disabilities may still struggle to process the text.
If you’re an art director or font fanatic, you might want to sit down for this. Take a few deep breaths. Go to your happy place. Because I’m going to explain why fonts are overrated and what actually matters for readability.
Information on different types of people for graphic communication, website and information designers including free reusable infographic
How can we include as many people as possible when designing graphic communication and information, and how do we not unnecessarily exclude people?
Letter and symbol misrecognition in highly legible typefaces for general, children, dyslexic, visually impaired and ageing readers
This paper identifies easily misrecognised letters and symbols in highly legible typefaces for general, children, dyslexic, visually impaired and ageing readers. It can also be considered as a review of related research in this area.
Responsible animation only starts when requested, can be paused, and avoids using known seizure and migraine triggers.
University of Maryland Trace Research and Development Center
The Trace Center's Photosensitive Epilepsy Analysis Tool (PEAT) is a free, downloadable resource for developers to identify seizure risks in their web content and software.
Learn about how to make your email accessible.
It is the mission of Accessible-email.org to promote email marketing accessibility and usability.
Some best practices on creating more accessible and inclusive email campaigns, routinely ranked as one of the world’s most valuable marketing channels, yet very little work has been done to make it more accessible for under-represented groups.
Accessibility is a term that gets thrown around a lot in web design, but what does it mean for email marketing? It comes down to some simple changes you can make in your content to remove barriers for subscribers with disabilities.
This guide will walk you through a checklist of over thirty improvements you can make to your emails to make sure they’re as accessible as possible.
Email on Acid
We’re passionate about helping email developers and marketers create and send emails that every subscriber can read and understand, regardless of whether they have a visual impairment or disability.
It only takes a few small steps to make your emails more accessible for all of your subscribers. In this post, we’ll discuss what those steps are and how they can make email better for everyone.
HTML and ARIA
Well-structured, semantic HTML is the foundation of an accessible web experience. ARIA can help make interactive web experiences accessible.
Will your code work with assistive technologies?
Accessibility of web content requires semantic information about widgets, structures, and behaviors, in order to allow assistive technologies to convey appropriate information to persons with disabilities.
Get the current accessibility support status of HTML5 features across major browsers
ARIA 1.0 Roles displayed in the style of the periodic table of elements.
This document provides readers with an understanding of how to use WAI-ARIA 1.1 to create accessible rich internet applications.
This collection of tutorials shows you how to develop web content that is accessible to people with disabilities, and that provides a better user experience for everyone.
Images and icons
Images and icons can help draw a reader in and communicate functionality and abstract concepts.
Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG) is emerging as the preferred graphic format to use on the web today. Are you abandoning the icon font or replacing old pg, gif and png graphics for the well-supported SVG, too? Let’s see how this will impact users of assistive technology (AT) and what is needed in order to ensure a great user experience for everyone.
Marco Hengstenberg visits the practice of using SVG icons with inline sprites, and how to ensure these icons are accessible.
Adding alternative text for images is the first principle of web accessibility. It is also one of the most difficult to properly implement.
This post contains everything you need to know about alt-texts! When to use them and how to perfectly craft them.
This decision tree describes how to use the <code>alt</code> attribute of the <code><img></code> element in various situations. For some types of images, there are alternative approaches, such as using CSS background images for decorative images or web fonts instead of images of text.
An image, they say, is worth a thousand words. Unless you can’t perceive images. This is why the alt attribute for images on the web is so important.
Find out what alt text is, why it’s so important, and how to write content for your images.
Poet Training Tool
The Poet Training Tool is a web based image description resource that helps people learn when and how to describe various types of images frequently found in educational books.
Unlike websites and web apps, mobile apps need to be installed on the device they're used on. They have some different requirements to ensure they're accessible.
In this iOS accessibility tutorial, learn how to make apps more accessible using VoiceOver and the Accessibility inspector.
Mobile A11y is a collection of blogs and resources about how we as mobile developers can improve accessibility on mobile devices.
Adobe's PDF file format needs special considerations to ensure it can work with assistive technology.
The aim of this guide is to provide all the practical information you need to learn how to tag a PDF document.
Acrobat tools make it easy to create accessible PDFs and check the accessibility of existing PDFs. You can create PDFs to meet common accessibility standards, such as Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 and PDF/UA (Universal Access, or ISO 14289).
Making sure that PDFs are accessible to everyone, including those using assistive technologies like screen readers, refreshable braille displays, screen magnifiers, etc., can be a daunting technical process. In this article, we’ll address two basic PDF accessibility concepts – tagging and reading order. Then, in subsequent articles, we’ll address more specific topics in PDF accessibility.
Although web accessibility is most commonly thought of when talking about digital accessibility, document accessibility also plays an important role. Document formats such as Word, PowerPoint, Excel, ePub, and most commonly PDF, are quite common and are usually linked within web pages or sent via email. As such, it’s important to make sure that those documents are accessible as well.
Defining Acrobat PDF accessibility.
Groups and organizations
Area groups dedicated to regularly meeting to discuss accessibility related topics.
A guide to accessible presentations, for presenters, speakers.
#a11yTO actively promotes digital inclusion for the design and development communities in and around the Greater Toronto Area.
Chicago, United States
A community of digital professionals passionate about making the world more accessible and inclusive.
Philladelphia, United States
The Philly Accessibility Meetup exists to connect and elevate the local accessibility community.
Seattle, United States
Accessibility Seattle is dedicated to the simple premise that 'digital inclusion' is fundamental.
The Accessibility Club gives you the chance to get some real-world experience with assistive technology, deepen your knowledge about web accessibilty and get in touch with like-minded webworkers.
Washington DC, United States
Accessibility DC is a monthly meetup once every month and is a chance for people who are interested in Accessibility to get together and share information. Web Developers who are interested in Web Accessibility and Adaptive Technology Users who have a daily experience of accessibility issues are all welcome to attend.
New York, United States
Our group exists to advance accessibility and inclusive design. Our goal is to bring together NYC's accessibility community to share ideas, best practices, and our experiences.
Michigan, United States
Accessibility group based in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Free, virtual digital accessibility conference with tracks for design, develoopers, business leaders, and compliance.
Bay Area, United States
Calling all Bay Area developers, designers, accessibility, usability and any other high-tech professionals who have an interest in digital (web, mobile, etc.) accessibility and users with different disabilities.
Bristol, United Kingdom
A meetup for anyone involved in digital design and development, accessibility and inclusive design.
A meetup for Hungarian developers and designers.
New York, United States
This is a venue for developers, designers, UX professionals, copywriters, QA professionals, and so on, to get together to learn from and share with others everything we can about accessibility and inclusiveness.
Manchester, United Kingdom
A meetup in Manchester focussing on making digital services accessible and inclusive to everyone.
North Carolina, United States
Are you interested in digital accessibility? Join this group of practitioners and inquirers as we explore how to make all aspects of digital life accessible to all people.
A11y Meetup Berlin is designed to bring together the accessibility, web performance, and inclusive design community to share and discuss ideas, best practices, and experiences.
Ohio, United States
Accessibility is for everyone. We seek to increase awareness of digital accessibility, inclusive design, and assistive technologies in Northeast Ohio in a setting of sharing, learning, and networking.
We like to come together to talk about inclusive design and accessibility. Be it UX design, UI design, EU law changes, web accessibility, product design, user research, what have you.
Munich Accessibility Meetup is a hub to bring together Munich's accessibility and inclusive design community.
Ce groupe s'adresse à toutes personnes étant intéressée à rendre le web plus accessible allant du développeur au designer en passant par le product owner.
The Portland Accessibility and User Experience (PDX A11Y UX) Meetup addresses how to incorporate accessibility and universal design principles into project planning, user research, and UX evaluation.
Oregon, United States
OZeWAI is an association of volunteers working to make the information world more inclusive. It was the first such organisation in Australia and has been a leading initiative in the field for more than 20 years.
A11y Bytes is a dynamic fast-paced evening of lightning talks about digital accessibility and the needs and preferences of users with disabilities, run in multiple cities across Australia.
Based in Melbourne, Australia, this group is for web practitioners and other professionals who are interested in web accessibility and inclusive design practices.
This Sydney group is for anyone interested in inclusive research, design and development practices. This includes accessible design and development, user research that involves people with disabilities in a holistic, integrated fashion as well as compliance with international standards such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.
Accessibility Scotland’s focus is on providing a friendly, affordable, and informative day focused on digital accessibility and inclusion.
London, United Kingdom
We are the UK's largest accessibility community, a welcoming and friendly group of people focussed on digital products, digital services and the built environment across the public, private and charitable sectors.
a11yMTL is a bilingual interest group for anyone passionate about web accessibility, universal design, and digital inclusion.
What on Earth is a role=drinks? It’s an accessibility meetup! The event features lightning talks by accessibility specialist, time to talk to the speakers and fellow attendees, and more than enough time to grab a drink.
Well-respected professional companies who specialize in accessibility.
We help organizations large and small navigate their path to digital accessibility through live-user audits, training, support and monitoring.
Deque Systems provides web and mobile accessibility solutions so you can meet compliance goals and help make the web accessible to all users.
We help organisations be more inclusive and accessible by providing digital accessibility audits, training, strategy, usability testing, and consulting.
Knowbility is a nonprofit organization with the goal of improving technology access for millions of youth and adults with disabilities all over the world.
TPGi – Your Accessibility Partner (WCAG 2.0/508 audits, VPAT, usability and accessible user experience).
Help us a build a digital world for everybody. Apply an accessible approach to your design, development, and testing. We'll guide you & show you how using an accessibility first approach empower us all.
Our mission is to empower organizations to make their web content accessible to people with disabilities.
Level Access is a company that provides digital accessibility solutions and services to corporations, government agencies, and educational institutions.
We believe in a web accessible to everyone. Tenon.io exists because universal design is hard. We create software to help you reach beyond compliance and build superior experiences for everyone.
We're a company with inclusion at its heart. Our focus is on emerging as well as existing technologies, offering knowledge, experience, strategic, and development services.
It's important to test your website or web app with disabled people to learn how it actually works.
We help organizations large and small navigate their path to digital accessibility through live-user audits, training, support and monitoring.
Access Works offers usability and accessibility testing that connects businesses with users with disabilities.
Web accessibility testing services to reach your compliance goals faster. Connect with real users online and on-demand, through crowdtesting!
Loop11 is a website user testing tool that enables you to identify navigational and usability issues of any website.
Perkins is so much more than a school. Our services help make the world a better place for people who are blind or visually impaired – from independent evaluations to assess a student's needs and strengths, to our Outreach Short Courses, which offer adventures and opportunities to practice skills to support independence and self-advocacy.
Miscellaneous accessibility-related resources.
A repository of styled and “styled” form control elements and markup patterns, and how they are announced by screen readers.
PDF accessibility checklist.
The WCAG contain some very useful information, and so I decided to condense the very extensive guidelines and highlight some practical examples of what we can do to implement them and make our websites more accessible.
These questions try to act as conversation starters, to gain insight into how someone solves problems, and interprets accessible, inclusive user experiences.
Peter van Grieken
This is a starter guide for teams about delivering accessible websites. Each person on your team has their own responsibilities, this guide tells you what everybody needs to do.
Content for a full-day workshop on inclusive design, including workbook modules, and exercises.
When we look at disability as a spectrum instead of a binary, we can see that a lot more people struggle to use our stuff than we might think. The good news is that making things accessible helps even more people than we might realise.
Disabled and Here
This stock collection is a disability-led effort to provide free and inclusive images from our own perspective, with photos and illustrations celebrating disabled Black, Indigenous, people of color (BIPOC).
Prompts to consider when making things for others to use.
Everyone should be able to access and enjoy the web. We’re committed to making that a reality.
The Directory of the Web.
In-person shopping can be difficult and stressful for disabled people for many reasons, from tall checkout counters to non-navigable spaces, but meanwhile, disabled Americans are more likely to never use the Internet compared to the total population.
Tutorials and resources for developers seeking to build accessible web experiences.
A collection of accessible scripts for rich interfaces elements, built using progressive enhancement and customisable.
Optimal accessibility should start much earlier, as part of the visual design process. We have created an infographic that highlights a few important principles of accessible design.
A concise treatment of accessibility principles and practices.
The main content is not usually the first thing on a web page. Keyboard and screen reader users generally must navigate a long list of navigation links, sub-lists of links, corporate icons, site searches, and other elements before ever arriving at the main content. This is particularly difficult for users with some forms of motor disabilities.
“When you incent, people optimize for reward. When you inspire, people optimize for purpose.”
Nielsen Norman Group
All articles tagged with 'accessibility.'
One of the complaints I’ve often heard from business owners and managers is that implementing accessibility is hard and slows down the development process. For this reason, sometimes accessibility gets postponed or set aside in the erroneous belief that’s something that can be “added” later. Here, I’d like to share my thoughts on why I think the first statement is misleading.
Tips on how to improve the accessibility of your web sites and apps with CSS.
When we talk about accessibility in the tech industry, most conversations are centered around the end user. But how accessible are the tools we code for other developers?
Information On Different Types Of People For Graphic Communication, Website And Information Designers
Every day we use graphic communication design from reading letters which have come through the post, or the newspaper in the morning, to reading and using information at work, to travelling and navigating in the environment. How can we include as many people as possible when designing graphic communication and information, and how do we not unnecessarily exclude people?
U.S. General Services Administration
A ‘quick-start’ guide for embedding accessibility and inclusive design practices into your team’s workflow.
Access & Use shows what it needs to make dynamic elements in websites accessible and usable for all.
Accessibility of the world wide web hasn’t always been a number one priority for web developers (much to detriment of internet users). Whilst very few people set out to design a website that is inaccessible, many studies have documented partially or completely inaccessible websites.
Are you a person that makes digital things for other people? Awesome—because this page is all about making things for people.
Provides advice for how to review and repair accessibility issues for Microsoft Office.
This post aims to tell you a few key things about accessibility. I can't cover everything, but I can cover: why accessibility matters, how to make a website accessible, and how to test for accessibility.
A curated collection of web accessibility tips, tricks, and best practices. Let's make the web a better place for everyone.
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We're always looking for people to help add great accessibility-related resources.