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Table of Contents

Featured Resource

Inclusive Design Patterns

macOS, Windows

Inclusive Design Patterns explains how we can craft accessible interfaces without extra effort— and what front-end design patterns we can use to create inclusive experiences.



Physical and eBooks written to discuss different accessibility topics.

Accessibility for Everyone

Laura Kalbag

Get sure footing on the path to designing with accessibility.

Adaptive Web Design: Crafting Rich Experiences with Progressive Enhancement

Aaron Gustafson

Building an elegant, functional website requires more than just knowing how to code. In Adaptive Web Design, Second Edition, you’ll learn how to use progressive enhancement to build websites that won’t break, work anywhere, are accessible by anyone—on any device, and are designed to work well into the future.

Agile Accessibility Handbook

Free ebook: A Practical Guide to Accessible Software Development at Scale, by Dylan Barrell.

Apps For All: Coding Accessible Web Applications

Heydon Pickering

Web accessibility is quite a large topic — far too large to fit into a small book. So, what will this book cover? Though we shall encounter visual design challenges, deal with performance issues, and adopt progressive enhancement — all of which are accessibility concerns — the underlying theme of this book is about making the interactivity of web applications include keyboard and screen reader users.

Building Access: Universal Design and the Politics of Disability

Aimi Hamraie

Building Access investigates twentieth-century strategies for designing the world with disability in mind.

Color Accessibility Workflows

Geri Coady

Make sure accessibility and aesthetics go hand-in-hand with every design.

Cross-Cultural Design

Senongo Akpem

Explore how to create culturally relevant and responsible experiences that reach a truly global audience.

Design for Cognitive Bias

David Dylan Thomas

In Design for Cognitive Bias, David Dylan Thomas lays bare the irrational forces that shape our everyday decisions and, inevitably, inform the experiences we craft. Once we grasp the logic powering these forces, we stand a fighting chance of confronting them, tempering them, and even harnessing them for good.

Design for Real Life

Eric Meyer, Sara Wachter-Boettcher

You can’t know every user, but you can develop inclusive practices to create experiences that support a wider range of people, more of the time.

Designing with Progressive Enhancement: Building the Web that Works for Everyone

Todd Parker, Scott Jehl, Maggie Costello Wachs, and Patty Toland

Progressive enhancement is an approach to web development that aims to deliver the best possible experience to the widest possible audience, and simplifies coding and testing as well. Whether users are viewing your sites on an iPhone, the latest and greatest high-end system, or even hearing them on a screen-reader, their experience should be easy to understand and use, and as fully-featured and functional as possible.

Designing with Web Standards

Jeffrey Zeldman

Designing with Web Standards remains your essential guide to creating sites that load faster, reach more users, and cost less to design and maintain.

Disability Visibility: First-Person Stories from the Twenty-First Century

Alice Wong

Activist Alice Wong brings together this urgent, galvanizing collection of contemporary essays by disabled people.

Inclusive Design Patterns

Heydon Pickering

Inclusive Design Handbook gets to the bottom of it all: accessibility myths and rules of thumbs, WAI-ARIA roles, content accessibility guidelines, landmark roles, keyboard and touch accessibility, accessible markup and interaction patterns, accessible forms and widgets, multimedia accessibility and inclusive prototyping.

Mismatch: How Inclusion Shapes Design

Kat Holmes

How inclusive methods can build elegant design solutions that work for all.

Practical Web Inclusion & Accessibility

Ashley Firth

This book will guide you through a broad range of access needs, the barriers users often face, and provide practical advice on how your sites can help rather than hinder. Going beyond advice tailored solely for developers, this book offers potential improvements for designers, developers, user experience professionals, QA and testers, so that everyone involved in building a website can benefit.

Pro HTML5 Accessibility

Joshue O Connor

Pro HTML5 Accessibility helps designers come to grips with building exciting, accessible and usable web sites and applications with HTML5. The book covers how to use HTML5 in order to serve the needs of people with disabilities and older persons using assistive technology (AT).

Web and App Accessibility: Your Roadmap to Digital Inclusion

Jason C. Taylor

Your Roadmap to Digital Inclusion is made up of four instructive chapters, focused on the resource considerations for each stage of a typical digital accessibility program and how to integrate the disability community across your program.

Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance

Jim Thatcher and Mark Urban

The power of the Web lies in the fact that anyone and everyone can access it, and this should also extend to users with disabilities. Accessibility is about making websites accessible to those with aural, visual, or physical disabilities, or rather, constructing websites that don't exclude these people from accessing the content or services provided.

A Web for Everyone: Designing Accessible User Experiences

Sarah Horton and Whitney Quesenbery

If you are in charge of the user experience, development, or strategy for a web site, A Web for Everyone will help you make your site accessible without sacrificing design or innovation. Rooted in universal design principles, this book provides solutions: practical advice and examples of how to create sites that everyone can use.

What Can a Body Do? How We Meet the Built World

Sara Hendren

A fascinating and provocative new way of looking at the things we use and the spaces we inhabit, and a call to imagine a better-designed world for us all.


Get the latest accessibility-related news delivered to your inbox.

The A11Y Project

The A11Y Project

A summary of the links The A11Y Project shares on Twitter throughout the week. Shared weekly on Fridays.

Accessibility Weekly

David A. Kennedy

A weekly dose of web accessibility to help you bring it into your everyday work. Delivered to your inbox each Monday.

Axess Lab Newsletter

Axess Lab

Get notified when we write new stuff



Stay up to date on learning and development, training opportunities, and accessibility news.


A monthly newsletter curated by the HackerYou Web Accessibility Club

t12t Accessibility Newsletter


The goal is to spread news, articles and tips regarding web accessibility. This will be more than a bunch of links in an email, there will be opinions.

University of Minnesota Duluth Webdev Newsletter

Laura L. Carlson

The Web Design Update is a plain text email digest dedicated to disseminating news and information about web design and development with emphasis on elements of user experience, accessibility, web standards and more.

The WebAIM Newsletter


The WebAIM newsletter is for people that are interested in receiving monthly news and updates on web accessibility issues. The newsletter will include featured articles, monthly tips, resources, and questions from WebAIM's discussion forum.


Listen to, or read the transcripts of people talking all about accessibility.

13 Letters

Be My Eyes

The accessibility podcast.

061: Accessibility with Marcy Sutton

The Frontside Podcast

Marcy Sutton is going to be talking with us a little bit about accessibility, both in the large and the small.

#A11y Rules Podcast

Nicolas Steenhout

Conversations around web accessibility.

a11y Cocktail

Front End Happy Hour

In this episode, we have a special guest joining us to talk about digital accessibility, Jennison Asuncion who is a leader in the accessibility community and has a lot of information to help us improve our websites and applications be more accessible for all users.

Accessibility a Developer's User Story

Eat Sleep Code

On this episode of Eat Sleep Code, guest Elle Waters explains why accessibility is important in software development and what a developer’s responsibilities are when creating a product.

Accessibility with Heydon Pickering


We're chatting with Heydon Pickering about accessibility, using pre-built solutions past their best before date, everyone's varying degrees of proficiency, and whether accessibility is becoming second nature to more people.

Accessibility with Nicolas Steenhout and Christopher Schmitt


We're talking accessibility with Christopher and Nicolas from Knowbility. Does accessibility transcend the web? Is it discouraging how much work still needs to be done? How do we get people the skills needed to help with accessibility on the web? Should accessibility be a role in house? And is Javascript the enemy of accessibility?

Accessibility is not a 'nice to have' – with Derek Featherstone

The Big Web Show

Why do companies de-prioritize accessibility? Making a digital map accessible to the blind. Pros and cons of the straw test. Why simulating a disability is not the same as working with disabled people.

Accessible Podcast

Steven Aquino and Timothy Buck

Accessible is a fortnightly—episodes are released twice per month—podcast about accessibility in tech. Topics covered on the show are mostly Apple-centric but will span the tech industry at large where appropriate.

Get Access with Aaron Cannon

React Podcast

This week, we talk accessibility pitfalls with Aaron Canon.

Intro to Accessibility with Stephanie Slattery


Stephanie Slattery explains the 5 categories of disabilities, shows us how to implement suggestions from the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, and shares why she’s so passionate about accessibility.

Presentable 30: Accessibility is Social Justice


This week on the show, we talk to Laura Kalbag about her new book, Accessibility for Everyone. We discuss how digital products have an increasing mandate to be broadly usable by everyone in society, and what we can do to achieve better accessibility in our designs.



Thisten is an audio-to-text platform, where transcripts are created and aggregated from podcasts for people to search, reference and discover.


Recorded conference talks.

A11ycasts with Rob Dodson


The goal of A11ycasts is to teach developers how accessibility works all the way down at the platform level, while also demonstrating real world accessibility problems and solutions to fix them.



YouTube livestreams about accessibility.

Aaron Cannon, Blind Web Developer


LDS Church (2007)

Accessibility Mythbusting


WDCNZ (2013)

The Accessibility Panel


WDCNZ (2013)

Accessibility Talks


Monthly online talks about accessibility.

Designing for Accessibility (Google I/O'19)


Hear from people who are working to make the world an easier place for those with disabilities.

Multi-device Accessibility (Alice Boxhall)


Chrome Dev Summit (2013)

PWAs in any context


Progressive Web App Summit (2016)

The rock'n'roll guide to ARIA and HTML5


Generate Conference (2013)



Small “micro apps” that live in your browser that you can activate to manipulate the current page or view.

44x44 Pixel Cursor Bookmarklet

Jared Smith

A bookmarklet to make it easier to test WCAG’s Target Size and proposed Pointer Target Spacing requirements.


Hao Luo

A bookmarklet that simulates various types user experiences.


The United States Social Security Administration

The Accessible Name and Description Inspector accessibility testing tool.



Check that your HTML code conforms to your coding standard.

Inaccessible Twitter

Chris Johnson

Check how accessible your Twitter media posts are.

Nu Markup Validation Service Bookmarklets

The Paciello Group

The W3C Nu Markup Validator checks the markup validity of Web documents, but instead uses the backend from the engine.


Khan Academy

An accessibility visualization toolkit.

The Visual ARIA Bookmarklet


Visual ARIA allows engineers, testers, educators, and students to physically observe ARIA usage within web technologies.

Browser extensions

Specialized tools that augment your browser to augment and enhance your experience.

Accessibility Insights


Solve accessibility issues before they reach your customers.

ARC Toolkit

The Paciello Group

ARC Toolkit is a professional-level accessibility testing tool that gives you the power to quickly and efficiently evaluate screens for accessibility and uncover issues related to the WCAG 2.1 Level A and AA guidelines.



The world's leading digital accessibility toolkit - download as a browser extenion or on NPM. Chosen by Microsoft, Google, development and testing teams everywhere.

axe beta


Automatically catch tons of accessibility bugs with axe. Catch even more with axe beta.

ChromeVox (Classic)


The ChromeVox (Classic) screen reader is an extension to Chrome that brings the speed, versatility, and security of Chrome to visually impaired users.

Color Contrast Analyzer

NC State IT Accessibility

Allows you to analyze text color contrast problems on a webpage according to the WCAG 2 text color contrast requirements.

I want to see like the colour blind


Right-click on a page and select 'Experience Colour Blindness' from the context menu.



The extension generates a documentmap or index of any web document structured with headings (you can access directly to the content by clicking on any of its items), and now, it shows the HTML 5 outline.


Matthew Tylee Atkinson

Allows you to navigate a web page via WAI-ARIA landmarks, using the keyboard or a pop-up menu.



NoCoffee can be helpful for understanding the problems faced by people with slight to extreme vision problems.

WAVE Evaluation Tool


WAVE is a web accessibility evaluation tool developed by WebAIM. It provides visual feedback about the accessibility of your web content by injecting icons and indicators into your page.

Web Accessibility Toolbar

The Paciello Group

The Web Accessibility Toolbar (WAT) has been developed to aid manual examination of web pages for a variety of aspects of accessibility.


These tools help you create, test for, and maintain accessible color contrast ratios.

Accessibility Tester


Pick any color to generate an accessible palette.

Accessible color palette builder

Atul Varma

An Elm-based prototype to help designers build accessible color palettes.


Brent Jackson

Color palette combination contrast tester

Color Safe

Donielle Berg and Adrian Rapp

Empowering designers with beautiful and accessible color palettes based on WCAG Guidelines of text and background contrast ratios.

Colors: A11Y Stats

Adam Morse

Colors.css - A nicer color palette for the web.

Colorblind Web Page Filter


Use the Colorblind Colorlab to select safe colors earlier in the design process.

Contrast Ratio

Lea Verou

Easily calculate color contrast ratios. Passing WCAG was never this easy!

Hex Naw

The Scenery

Hex Naw is a tool that helps designers and developers test entire color systems for contrast and accessibility. Plug in your palette or color system and let Hex Naw do the rest.

Image-Color: Color Contrast Checker

Enter your colors in HEX format or click on the icon to use the color picker. Contrast ratio value will be updated automatically as you change color values.

Tanaguru Contrast-finder


Find good constrast for web accessibility between two colors.

We are Colorblind

Tom van Beveren and Kim van den Brink

Making the world a better place for the colorblind.

Who Can Use

Corey Ginnivan

A tool that brings attention and understanding to how color contrast can affect different people with visual impairments.

Development tools

Tools and resources for helping to develop with an accessibile mindset.



Run a free website performance test and get actionable tips on how to optimize it.



AccessLint is a GitHub App that finds accessibility issues in your pull requests.

Ace, by DAISY

The DAISY Consortium

Ace, the Accessibility Checker for EPUB, is a tool developed by the DAISY Consortium to assist with the evaluation of accessibility features of EPUB publications.


Rodney Rehm

A JavaScript library to help modern web applications with accessibility concerns by making accessibility simpler.

a11yTools Extension for Safari macOS

Paul J. Adam

a11yTools is a collection of HTML Web Accessibility Testing Tools in one location in an Extension for Safari used for quick and easy Accessibility testing.

a11yTools iOS - Web Accessibility Testing Tool

Paul J. Adam

a11yTools is a collection of HTML Web Accessibility Testing Tools in one location on your iPhone and iPad for quick and easy Accessibility testing.

Accessibility Management Platform (AMP)

Level Access

AMP’s powerful testing engine and work flow, accessible development best practices and extensive training course library allow organizations to quickly and efficiently incorporate accessibility compliance into existing development processes.


The Paciello Group

Automated testing that looks for machine-detectable accessibility defects within digital content.


Deque Labs

Accessibility engine for automated Web UI testing.

Atom: web-accessibility-checker

Michael Weber

Web Accessibility checker which evaluate some defined WCAG rules instantly during coding or on command.

Atom: accessibility-snippets


Snippets that include all WAI-ARIA attributes and descriptions, for ease of use in building more accessible web content.

Bootstrap accessibility plugin


Bootstrap Accessibility Plugin is an extension for the Bootstrap 3 web development framework that makes many of the components of this library accessible for keyboard and screen reader users.



Pa11y is your automated accessibility testing pal.


Ryerson University

Sa11y is an accessibility quality assurance tool that visually highlights common accessibility and usability issues. Geared towards content authors, Sa11y indicates errors or warnings at the source with a simple tooltip on how to fix.

Sublime WAI-ARIA Package

Indrek Paas

WAI-ARIA Roles, States and Properties auto-completion for Sublime Text.

Screen readers

Information about screen reading assistive technology.

Android Accessibility Suite


Android Accessibility Suite is a collection of accessibility services that help you use your Android device eyes-free or with a switch device.

Job Access With Speech (JAWS)

Freedom Scientific

JAWS is the world's most popular screen reader, developed for computer users whose vision loss prevents them from seeing screen content or navigating with a mouse.

NonVisual Desktop Access

NV Access

NonVisual Desktop Access (NVDA) is a free, open-source, portable screen reader for Microsoft Windows.


The GNOME Project

Orca is a free and open-source, flexible, extensible screen reader from the GNOME project for individuals who are blind or visually impaired.

VoiceOver (iOS)


VoiceOver is a gesture-based screen reader that lets you enjoy using iPhone even if you don’t see the screen.

VoiceOver (macOS)


VoiceOver gives you auditory descriptions of each onscreen element and provides helpful hints along the way.

Vision simulators

Vision simulators can be used to help you get an idea of how a low vision situation may appear.

Color Oracle

Bernie Jenny

Color Oracle takes the guesswork out of designing for color blindness by showing you in real time what people with common color vision impairments will see.


Nothing Magical, Inc.

A macOS app for quick access to WCAG color contrast ratios

Colour Contrast Analyser

The Paciello Group

The Colour Contrast Analyser (CCA) helps you determine the legibility of text and the contrast of visual elements, such as graphical controls and visual indicators.

Sim Daltonism

Michel Fortin

Sim Daltonism lets you visualize colors as they are perceived with various types of color blindness.



Other accessibility-focused websites to read and learn from.

#a11y tag on The Practical Dev

Where programmers share ideas and help each other grow.

24 Accessibility

24 days of digital accessibility gifts during the season of giving and sharing.

456 Berea Street

Articles and news on web standards, accessibility, and usability.

Accessibility Matters

Documenting everything through the journey of learning web accessibility.


Simple tips on making web content more accessible to all.

Accessible Culture

Promoting a culture of inclusion through the research and application of web accessibility and standards.

Accessibility Wins

Showcasing accessible user interfaces and tools.

Articles » Simply Accessible

Find out what’s happening in the world of accessible design, Simply Accessible’s team updates, and better practices for an accessible web.

Blog - Karl Groves

Karl Groves' web accessibility blog

Inclusive Components

A blog trying to be a pattern library. All about designing inclusive web interfaces, piece by piece.

Deque Blog

Stay up to date on all things accessibility

Low Visionary

A blog by Robyn Hunt

The Paciello Group Blog

A blog about accessibility written by the The Paciello Group's employees.

WebAIM Blog

A blog about accessibility written by WebAIM's employees.

Web Axe

Blog and podcast on web accessibility.

Community help

Other internet groups where you can find accessibility help and support.

Search for 'accessibility' on

Questions and Answers by Accessify: Browse through our database of popular questions to find the best answers ever posted by other people.

Anybody can be an A11y Slacker

Information on the web-a11y Slack group.

Newest 'accessibility' Questions - Stack Overflow

Content tagged with 'accessibility'.

Search for 'a11y' on

Find Meetups so you can do more of what matters to you.

Web Accessibility Guidebook for Developers - Telerik

With this article, our goal is to introduce fellow engineers, regardless of level, to web accessibility and share our practical knowledge and best practices.

WebAIM Web Accessibility E-mail Discussion List

The WebAIM web accessibility mailing list is for anyone interested in discussing web accessibility issues. Individuals from all organizations and specialties are encouraged to join.


Classes you can take to learn all about accessibile digital design and development.

Accessibility Courses

Mike Gifford

Courses, webinars, educational videos, and more, offered in web accessibility.

Accessibility fundamentals


Technology can empower people to achieve more, help strengthen education opportunities, and make the workplace more inviting and inclusive for people with disabilities.

Introduction to Web Accessibility

edX and the W3C

Get a strong foundation in digital accessibility to make your websites and apps work well for people with disabilities, meet international standards, and provide a better user experience for everyone.

Start Building Accessible Web Applications Today

This course will introduce you to accessibility through hands-on, technical examples that are way more effective than reading 10-year-old static web content.

Take 5 - Ethan Marcotte

Aquent Gymnasium

A series of five 5-minute tutorial videos hosted by Aquent Gymnasium that deal with introductory accessibility topics.

The A11Y Collective

The A11Y Collective is the e-learning platform for anyone who wants to learn more about web accessibility. The courses focus mostly on knowledge and skills that are valuable for web designers, developers, webmasters, product owners and web editors.

Web Accessibility by Google


In this course you’ll get hands-on experience making web applications accessible.

Design and user experience

Information for how to create accessible digital designs.

7 Things Every Designer Needs to Know about Accessibility

Jesse Hausler

Accessibility enables people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, interact with, and contribute to the web. Imagine a world where developers know everything there is to know about accessibility. You design it and they build it… perfectly. In this world, only the design itself can cause people with disabilities to have trouble using a product.

Accessible UI Components For The Web

Addy Osmani

To be accessible, UI components need to work across multiple devices with varying screen-sizes and different kinds of input. Moreover, components should be usable by the broadest group of users, including those with disabilities.

Accessibility guidelines for UX Designers

Avinash Kaur

As a UX designer, it is important to build empathy and celebrate accessibility requirements as a set of design constraints to build a better product.

Designing for accessibility is not that hard

Pablo Stanley

Seven easy-to-implement guidelines to design a more accessible web.

UX Myths

Zoltán Gócza and Zoltán Kollin

UX Myths collects the most frequent user experience misconceptions and explains why they don't hold true.

WCAG for designers

Geri Reid

Here's a checklist I'm working on to help ensure the products I design comply with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG).

Screen reader help

Help about screen reading assistive technology.

Basic screen reader commands for accessibility testing

The Paciello Group

When you test your website with a screen reader there are a few basic commands you should know.

The Importance Of Manual Accessibility Testing

Smashing Magazine

Automated accessibility tests are a great resource to have, but they can’t automatically make your site accessible. Use them as one step of a larger testing process.

Keyboard Testing Basics


Keyboard testing is one of the most efficient, impactful, and easy tasks that any team member can do to find accessibility issues.

Testing with Screen Readers


Answers to common questions.


Good typography is an important part of an accessible digital experience.

Designing Accessible Content: Typography, Font Styling, and Structure

Envato Tuts+

Creating and designing accessible content means more than just choosing accessible typography. Even with “perfect” font families in place on your website, people with low vision, cognitive, language, and learning disabilities may still struggle to process the text.

Fonts don’t matter

Axess Lab

If you’re an art director or font fanatic, you might want to sit down for this. Take a few deep breaths. Go to your happy place. Because I’m going to explain why fonts are overrated and what actually matters for readability.

Information on different types of people for graphic communication, website and information designers including free reusable infographic

Thomas Bohm

How can we include as many people as possible when designing graphic communication and information, and how do we not unnecessarily exclude people?

Letter and symbol misrecognition in highly legible typefaces for general, children, dyslexic, visually impaired and ageing readers


This paper identifies easily misrecognised letters and symbols in highly legible typefaces for general, children, dyslexic, visually impaired and ageing readers. It can also be considered as a review of related research in this area.

Subject matter


Responsible animation only starts when requested, can be paused, and avoids using known seizure and migraine triggers.

Photosensitive Epilepsy Analysis Tool

University of Maryland Trace Research and Development Center

The Trace Center's Photosensitive Epilepsy Analysis Tool (PEAT) is a free, downloadable resource for developers to identify seizure risks in their web content and software.


Learn about how to make your email accessibile.

It is the mission of to promote email marketing accessibility and usability.

24 Accessibility

Some best practices on creating more accessible and inclusive email campaigns, routinely ranked as one of the world’s most valuable marketing channels, yet very little work has been done to make it more accessible for under-represented groups.

Accessibility in Email Marketing


Accessibility is a term that gets thrown around a lot in web design, but what does it mean for email marketing? It comes down to some simple changes you can make in your content to remove barriers for subscribers with disabilities.

A Beginner’s Guide to Email Accessibility (Checklist + Resources)

Envato Tuts+

This guide will walk you through a checklist of over thirty improvements you can make to your emails to make sure they’re as accessible as possible.

Email Accessibility Best Practices

Email on Acid

We’re passionate about helping email developers and marketers create and send emails that every subscriber can read and understand, regardless of whether they have a visual impairment or disability.

The Ultimate Guide to Accessible Emails


It only takes a few small steps to make your emails more accessible for all of your subscribers. In this post, we’ll discuss what those steps are and how they can make email better for everyone.


Well-structured, semantic HTML is the foundation of an accessibile web experience. ARIA can help make interactive web experiences accessible.

Michael Fairchild

Will your code work with assistive technologies?

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.1


Accessibility of web content requires semantic information about widgets, structures, and behaviors, in order to allow assistive technologies to convey appropriate information to persons with disabilities.

HTML5 Accessibility

Steve Faulkner

Get the current accessibility support status of HTML5 features across major browsers

Periodic Table of ARIA 1.0 Roles

Dylan Barrell

ARIA 1.0 Roles displayed in the style of the periodic table of elements.

WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices 1.1


This document provides readers with an understanding of how to use WAI-ARIA 1.1 to create accessible rich internet applications.

Web Accessibility Tutorials


This collection of tutorials shows you how to develop web content that is accessible to people with disabilities, and that provides a better user experience for everyone.

Images and icons

Images and icons can help draw a reader in and communicate functionality and abstract concepts.

Accessible SVGs


Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG) is emerging as the preferred graphic format to use on the web today. Are you abandoning the icon font or replacing old pg, gif and png graphics for the well-supported SVG, too? Let’s see how this will impact users of assistive technology (AT) and what is needed in order to ensure a great user experience for everyone.

Accessible SVG Icons with Inline Sprites

24 Accessibility

Marco Hengstenberg visits the practice of using SVG icons with inline sprites, and how to ensure these icons are accessible.

Alternative Text


Adding alternative text for images is the first principle of web accessibility. It is also one of the most difficult to properly implement.

Alt-texts: The Ultimate Guide

Axxess Lab

This post contains everything you need to know about alt-texts! When to use them and how to perfectly craft them.

An alt Decision Tree


This decision tree describes how to use the <code>alt</code> attribute of the <code>&lt;img&gt;</code> element in various situations. For some types of images, there are alternative approaches, such as using CSS background images for decorative images or web fonts instead of images of text.

An Alt Text Primer


An image, they say, is worth a thousand words. Unless you can’t perceive images. This is why the alt attribute for images on the web is so important.

Considerations when writing alt text

Scott Vinkle

Find out what alt text is, why it’s so important, and how to write content for your images.

Creating Accessible SVGs


Scalable Vector Graphics (SVGs) have been around since 1999, but they have seen a real resurgence in use as design interactions have become more complex and CSS/JavaScript have replaced antiquated animation programs such as Adobe Flash.

How To Describe Images

Poet Training Tool

The Poet Training Tool is a web based image description resource that helps people learn when and how to describe various types of images frequently found in educational books.

Mobile apps

Unlike websites and web apps, mobile apps need to be installed on the device they're used on. They have some different requirements to ensure they're accessibile.

iOS Accessibility: Getting Started

In this iOS accessibility tutorial, learn how to make apps more accessible using VoiceOver and the Accessibility inspector.


Adobe's PDF file format needs special considerations to ensure it can work with assistive technology.

AcceDe PDF Project


The aim of this guide is to provide all the practical information you need to learn how to tag a PDF document.

Create and verify PDF accessibility (Acrobat Pro)


Acrobat tools make it easy to create accessible PDFs and check the accessibility of existing PDFs. You can create PDFs to meet common accessibility standards, such as Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 and PDF/UA (Universal Access, or ISO 14289).

PDF Tagging and Reading Order (eight-part series on PDF accessibility)


Making sure that PDFs are accessible to everyone, including those using assistive technologies like screen readers, refreshable braille displays, screen magnifiers, etc., can be a daunting technical process. In this article, we’ll address two basic PDF accessibility concepts – tagging and reading order. Then, in subsequent articles, we’ll address more specific topics in PDF accessibility.

PDF accessibility introduction

Pragmatic Access

Although web accessibility is most commonly thought of when talking about digital accessibility, document accessibility also plays an important role. Document formats such as Word, PowerPoint, Excel, ePub, and most commonly PDF, are quite common and are usually linked within web pages or sent via email. As such, it’s important to make sure that those documents are accessible as well.

WebAIM: PDF Accessibility


Defining Acrobat PDF accessibility.

Groups and organizations


Area groups dedicated to regularly meeting to discuss accessibility related topics.


Chicago, Illinois

A guide to accessible presentations, for presenters, speakers.


Toronto, Canada

#a11yTO actively promotes digital inclusion for the design and development communities in and around the Greater Toronto Area.

Accessibility Chicago

Chicago, United States

A community of digital professionals passionate about making the world more accessible and inclusive.

A11yPHL - Philly Accessibility Meetup

Philladelphia, United States

The Philly Accessibility Meetup exists to connect and elevate the local accessibility community.


Seattle, United States

Accessibility Seattle is dedicated to the simple premise that 'digital inclusion' is fundamental.

Accessibility Club

Nürnberg, Germany

The Accessibility Club gives you the chance to get some real-world experience with assistive technology, deepen your knowledge about web accessibilty and get in touch with like-minded webworkers.

Accessibility DC

Washington DC, United States

Accessibility DC is a monthly meetup once every month and is a chance for people who are interested in Accessibility to get together and share information. Web Developers who are interested in Web Accessibility and Adaptive Technology Users who have a daily experience of accessibility issues are all welcome to attend.

A11yNYC - Accessibility New York City

New York, United States

Our group exists to advance accessibility and inclusive design. Our goal is to bring together NYC's accessibility community to share ideas, best practices, and our experiences.


Michigan, United States

Accessibility group based in Ann Arbor, Michigan.



Free, virtual digital accessibility conference with tracks for design, develoopers, business leaders, and compliance.

Bay Area Accessibility and Inclusive Design

Bay Area, United States

Calling all Bay Area developers, designers, accessibility, usability and any other high-tech professionals who have an interest in digital (web, mobile, etc.) accessibility and users with different disabilities.

Bristol Inclusive Design & Development

Bristol, United Kingdom

A meetup for anyone involved in digital design and development, accessibility and inclusive design.

Budapest Accessibility Meetup

Budapest, Hungary

A meetup for Hungarian developers and designers.

Buffalo Accessibility Meetup

New York, United States

This is a venue for developers, designers, UX professionals, copywriters, QA professionals, and so on, to get together to learn from and share with others everything we can about accessibility and inclusiveness.

Open Mcr

Manchester, United Kingdom

A meetup in Manchester focussing on making digital services accessible and inclusive to everyone.


North Carolina, United States

Are you interested in digital accessibility? Join this group of practitioners and inquirers as we explore how to make all aspects of digital life accessible to all people.

A11y Berlin

Berlin, Germany

A11y Meetup Berlin is designed to bring together the accessibility, web performance, and inclusive design community to share and discuss ideas, best practices, and experiences.

Cleveland Accessibility Meetup

Ohio, United States

Accessibility is for everyone. We seek to increase awareness of digital accessibility, inclusive design, and assistive technologies in Northeast Ohio in a setting of sharing, learning, and networking.

Inclusive Design & Accessibility

Utrecht, Netherlands

We like to come together to talk about inclusive design and accessibility. Be it UX design, UI design, EU law changes, web accessibility, product design, user research, what have you.

Munich Accessibility Meetup

Munich, Germany

Munich Accessibility Meetup is a hub to bring together Munich's accessibility and inclusive design community.

Paris Web Accessibility

Paris, France

Ce groupe s'adresse à toutes personnes étant intéressée à rendre le web plus accessible allant du développeur au designer en passant par le product owner.

Portland Accessibility and User Experience Meetup

The Portland Accessibility and User Experience (PDX A11Y UX) Meetup addresses how to incorporate accessibility and universal design principles into project planning, user research, and UX evaluation.

Oregon, United States

OZeWAI - Australian Web Adaptability Initiative

Perth, Australia

OZeWAI is an association of volunteers working to make the information world more inclusive. It was the first such organisation in Australia and has been a leading initiative in the field for more than 20 years.

Tokyo, Japan

A11y Bytes


A11y Bytes is a dynamic fast-paced evening of lightning talks about digital accessibility and the needs and preferences of users with disabilities, run in multiple cities across Australia.

Melbourne Web Accessibility and Inclusive Design

Melbourne, Australia

Based in Melbourne, Australia, this group is for web practitioners and other professionals who are interested in web accessibility and inclusive design practices.

Sydney Web Accessibility and Inclusive Design

Sydney, Australia

This Sydney group is for anyone interested in inclusive research, design and development practices. This includes accessible design and development, user research that involves people with disabilities in a holistic, integrated fashion as well as compliance with international standards such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.

Accessibility Scotland

Edinburgh, Scotland

Accessibility Scotland’s focus is on providing a friendly, affordable, and informative day focused on digital accessibility and inclusion.

London Accessibility Meetup

London, United Kingdom

We are the UK's largest accessibility community, a welcoming and friendly group of people focussed on digital products, digital services and the built environment across the public, private and charitable sectors.

a11yMTL meetup - web accessibility & inclusive design

Montréal, Canada

a11yMTL is a bilingual interest group for anyone passionate about web accessibility, universal design, and digital inclusion.


Amsterdam, Netherlands

What on Earth is a role=drinks? It’s an accessibility meetup! The event features lightning talks by accessibility specialist, time to talk to the speakers and fellow attendees, and more than enough time to grab a drink.

Professional help

Well-respected professional companies who specialize in accessibility.

We help organizations large and small navigate their path to digital accessibility, giving more people access to their products and services.

Deque Systems

Deque Systems provides web and mobile accessibility solutions so you can meet compliance goals and help make the web accessible to all users.


We help organisations be more inclusive and accessible by providing digital accessibility audits, training, strategy, usability testing, and consulting.


Knowbility is a nonprofit organization with the goal of improving technology access for millions of youth and adults with disabilities all over the world.

The Paciello Group

The Paciello Group – Your Accessibility Partner (WCAG 2.0/508 audits, VPAT, usability and accessible user experience).

Simply Accessible

Help us a build a digital world for everybody. Apply an accessible approach to your design, development, and testing. We'll guide you & show you how using an accessibility first approach empower us all.

WebAIM: Web Accessibility In Mind

Our mission is to empower organizations to make their web content accessible to people with disabilities.

Level Access

Level Access is a company that provides digital accessibility solutions and services to corporations, government agencies, and educational institutions.


We believe in a web accessible to everyone. exists because universal design is hard. We create software to help you reach beyond compliance and build superior experiences for everyone.


We're a company with inclusion at its heart. Our focus is on emerging as well as existing technologies, offering knowledge, experience, strategic, and development services.

Professional testers

It's important to test your website or web app with disabled people to learn how it actually works.


Through audits, training, support and monitoring A360 helps organizations navigate their path to digital accessibility.

AccessWorks (by Knowbility)

Access Works offers usability and accessibility testing that connects businesses with users with disabilities.

Fable Tech Labs

Web accessibility testing services to reach your compliance goals faster. Connect with real users online and on-demand, through crowdtesting!


Loop11 is a website user testing tool that enables you to identify navigational and usability issues of any website.

Perkins School For The Blind

Perkins is so much more than a school. Our services help make the world a better place for people who are blind or visually impaired – from independent evaluations to assess a student's needs and strengths, to our Outreach Short Courses, which offer adventures and opportunities to practice skills to support independence and self-advocacy.

Everything else

Additional resources

Miscellaneous accessibility-related resources.

Aaron Cannon’s Web Accessibility Checklist

Cameron Moll

PDF accessibility checklist.

The Accessibility Cheatsheet

Ire Aderinokun

The WCAG contain some very useful information, and so I decided to condense the very extensive guidelines and highlight some practical examples of what we can do to implement them and make our websites more accessible.

Accessibility for teams

Peter van Grieken

This is a starter guide for teams about delivering accessible websites. Each person on your team has their own responsibilities, this guide tells you what everybody needs to do.

Adobe Inclusive Design Workshop

Matt May

Content for a full-day workshop on inclusive design, including workbook modules, and exercises.

Disability is a spectrum, not a binary

24 Accessibility

When we look at disability as a spectrum instead of a binary, we can see that a lot more people struggle to use our stuff than we might think. The good news is that making things accessible helps even more people than we might realise.

Empathy Prompts

Eric Bailey

Prompts to consider when making things for others to use.

Google Accessibility


Everyone should be able to access and enjoy the web. We’re committed to making that a reality.

List of online accessibility tools


The Directory of the Web.

Tips For Online Shopping With Disabilities: A Website Accessibility Guide

Coupon Follow

In-person shopping can be difficult and stressful for disabled people for many reasons, from tall checkout counters to non-navigable spaces, but meanwhile, disabled Americans are more likely to never use the Internet compared to the total population.

Home: Up Your A11y

Suzanne Aitchison

Tutorials and resources for developers seeking to build accessible web experiences.

Van11y: Accessibility and Vanilla JavaScript - ES2015

Nicolas Hoffmann

A collection of accessible scripts for rich interfaces elements, built using progressive enhancement and customisable.

Web Accessibility for Designers (Infographic)


Optimal accessibility should start much earlier, as part of the visual design process. We have created an infographic that highlights a few important principles of accessible design.

Web Fundamentals: Accessibility


A concise treatment of accessibility principles and practices.


The main content is not usually the first thing on a web page. Keyboard and screen reader users generally must navigate a long list of navigation links, sub-lists of links, corporate icons, site searches, and other elements before ever arriving at the main content. This is particularly difficult for users with some forms of motor disabilities.

WebAIM’s Hierarchy for Motivating Accessibility Change


“When you incent, people optimize for reward. When you inspire, people optimize for purpose.”

The a11y Monthly: Does Accessibility slow down the development process?


One of the complaints I’ve often heard from business owners and managers is that implementing accessibility is hard and slows down the development process. For this reason, sometimes accessibility gets postponed or set aside in the erroneous belief that’s something that can be “added” later. Here, I’d like to share my thoughts on why I think the first statement is misleading.

Writing CSS with Accessibility in Mind

Manuel Matuzovic

Tips on how to improve the accessibility of your web sites and apps with CSS.

A guide to coding accessible developer tools

The Increment

When we talk about accessibility in the tech industry, most conversations are centered around the end user. But how accessible are the tools we code for other developers?

Information On Different Types Of People For Graphic Communication, Website And Information Designers

Usability Geek

Every day we use graphic communication design from reading letters which have come through the post, or the newspaper in the morning, to reading and using information at work, to travelling and navigating in the environment. How can we include as many people as possible when designing graphic communication and information, and how do we not unnecessarily exclude people?

Accessibility for Teams

U.S. General Services Administration

A ‘quick-start’ guide for embedding accessibility and inclusive design practices into your team’s workflow.

Access & Use

Dias GmbH

Access & Use shows what it needs to make dynamic elements in websites accessible and usable for all.

Are you accessible? -  A Primer on Web Accessibility

Amy Dickens

Accessibility of the world wide web hasn’t always been a number one priority for web developers (much to detriment of internet users). Whilst very few people set out to design a website that is inaccessible, many studies have documented partially or completely inaccessible websites.

Mobile A11y

Rob Whitaker

Mobile A11y is a collection of blogs and resources about how we as mobile developers can improve accessibility on mobile devices.

Word and PowerPoint Accessibility Evaluation Checklist


Provides advice for how to review and repair accessibility issues for Microsoft Office.

The Web Accessibility Introduction I Wish I Had

Max Antonucci

This post aims to tell you a few key things about accessibility. I can't cover everything, but I can cover: why accessibility matters, how to make a website accessible, and how to test for accessibility.

Web Accessibility Guide

Stefan Feješ

A curated collection of web accessibility tips, tricks, and best practices. Let's make the web a better place for everyone.

Submit a resource

We're always looking for people to help add great accessibility-related resources.